Monthly Archives: June 2013

Bone Marrow Transplant Success Rate

The Expected outcome after Bone Marrow Transplant In a successful bone marrow transplant, the donor’s marrow migrates to the cavities in the recipient’s bones and produces normal numbers of healthy blood cells. Bone marrow transplants can extend a person’s life, improve quality of life, and may aid in curing the […]

Bone Marrow Transplant History

Definition of Bone Marrow Transplant In bone marrow transplantation, Healthy marrow is infused into people who have had high dose chemotherapy for one of the many forms of leukemias, immunodeficiencies, lymphomas, anemias, metabolic disorders, and sometimes solid tumors. Why we do Bone Marrow Transplant A bone marrow transplant is used to rebuild the body’s […]

Anemia in pregnancy

Types of anemia in pregnancy Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy  Worldwide the contribution of Anemia in pregnancy to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality is well recognized; in some parts of Africa, more than 75 percent of pregnant women are anemic, and there is a significant correlation between maternal mortality and anemia. Iron […]

Effect of Pregnancy on Hematology

Effect of pregnancy on maternal physiology Normal pregnancy involves many changes in maternal physiology including alterations in hematologic parameters. These changes include expansion in maternal blood and plasma volume. The increase in plasma volume is relatively larger than the increase in red cell mass resulting in a decrease in hemoglobin […]

Production of Fetal Hematopoietic Cells

Sites of Fetal Hematopoietic Cells Production During embryogenesis, hematopoiesis occurs in spatially and temporally distinct sites, including the extraembryonic yolk sac, the fetal liver, the thymus, and the preterm marrow. The origin of hematopoietic cells is closely tied to gastrulation, the formation of mesoderm cells, and to the emergence of […]

Neonatal blood

Neonatal blood During embryogenesis, production of Neonatal blood occurs in spatially and temporally distinct sites, including the extraembryonic yolk sac, the fetal liver, and the preterm marrow. The development of primitive erythroblasts in the yolk sac is critical for embryonic survival.  Primitive erythroblasts differentiate within the vascular network rather than in […]

Lymph nodes

Lymph nodes The Lymph nodes are secondary lymphoid tissues. They form part of a network that filters antigens from the interstitial tissue fluid and lymph during its passage from the periphery to the thoracic duct. Thus, the Lymph nodes are the primary sites of immune response to tissue antigens. Lymph nodes anatomy The lymph […]

What is spleen function

What is spleen function  What is spleen function? actually spleen has many functions not only one. Splenic function 1. Red cell clearance There are three important area that compose the spleen. red pulp, white pulp and marginal zone. the white pulp contains the lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that surround the […]

What you need to know about Spleen

What is the spleen? The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. Secondary lymphoid tissues provide an environment in which the cells of the immune system can interact with antigen and with one another to develop an immune response to antigen. The spleen is a major site of immune response to […]

Function of Thymus

Thymic immune Function The thymus is the site of T-cell development. Function of Thymus is underscored by patients with DiGeorge syndrome, or chromosome 22q11. deletion syndrome, which lacks the genes, required for thymic development. These patients do not develop T cells and hence have profound immune deficiency. Mechanism of cells production in thymus There are […]


Definition of Thymus The Thymus is the site for development of thymic derived lymphocytes, or T cells. What happen inside the Thymus  Developing T cells, called thymocytes, differentiate from lymphoid stem cells derived from the marrow into functional, mature T cells. It is here that T cells acquire their repertoire of specific antigen receptors […]

Types of Blood Cells in Bone Marrow

Different types of blood cells in bone marrow There are different types of blood cells in the bone marrow: Erythrocytes The erythrocyte is a complex cell. The membrane is composed of lipids and proteins, and the interior of the cell contains metabolic machinery designed to sustain the cell through its […]

Bone Marrow is the Site of Blood Formation

Function of Bone Marrow is: The bone marrow is one of the largest organs in the human body, and it is the principal site for blood cell formation. In the normal adult, daily marrow production amounts to approximately 2.5 billion red cells, 2.5 billion platelets, and 1 billion granulocytes per […]

What is red cell?

What is red cell parameter  It’s very important to know what is red cell.  Most automated blood cell counters measure the number of red cells, the mean red cell volume (MCV), and hemoglobin concentration. The other red cell parameters, including the hematocrit, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are […]

What is bone marrow

 What is bone marrow  The bone marrow, located in the medullary cavity of bone, What is bone marrow ? it is the sole site of effective hematopoiesis in humans. The marrow produces approximately six billion cells per kilogram of  body weight per day. What is bone marrow types Hematopoietically active (red) marrow […]

Acute myelogenous leukemia

Definition of Acute myelogenous leukemia Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the result of a sequence of somatic mutations in a  multipotential primitive hematopoietic cell or, in some cases, a more differentiated  progenitor cell.  Acute myelogenous leukemia  is characterized by (1) accumulation of abnormal (leukemic) blast cells, principally in the  marrow, and (2) […]

Abnormal Bone Marrow Examination

Abnormal Bone Marrow Examination Results Abnormal Bone marrow biopsy is characterized by disruption of the marrow architecture with groups of cytologically abnormal cells. Assessment of the tissue of origin is primarily based on morphology, clinical history, and immunocytochemical staining. The tendency of carcinoma cells to form tightly adherent clusters frequently […]

Bone Marrow exam

Importance of microscopic  marrow exam Marrow exam  is a mainstay of hematologic diagnosis. Even  with the advent of specialized biochemical and molecular assays that capitalize on advances in our understanding of the cell biology of hematopoiesis, the primary diagnosis of hematologic malignancies and many nonneoplastic hematologic disorders relies upon examination of […]

Counting of Platelets

Platelets count   Platelets are usually counted electronically by enumerating particles in the unlysed sample within a specified volume window, where volume may be measured by electrical  impedance or light scatter. Platelets counting  difficulties The platelet count was more difficult to automate than the red cell  count because of the […]

Examination of white blood cells

White blood cells count  White blood cells  counts are performed by automated cell counters on blood samples appropriately  diluted with a solution that lyses the erythrocytes(e.g., an acid or a detergent), but preserves  white blood cells integrity. Manual counting of white blood cells is used only when the instrument reports […]

Examination of Blood Count

Importance of Blood Count Examination Examination of the blood counts and their appearance on a blood film is central to the diagnosis of blood cell diseases and can give important information about numerous other degenerative, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases that are reflected in quantitative or qualitative changes of blood cells. […]

Post Transplant Complications

Time of Post Transplant Complications The first 100 days following the cell infusion is typically the time of greatest risk for post transplant complications of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant. Care by physicians skilled in the management of patients undergoing these procedures is of critical importance. Progress in the supportive care […]

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Definition of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder that originates in a single B or T-lymphocyte progenitor. Proliferation and accumulation of blast cells in the marrow result in suppression of hematopoiesis and, thereafter, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Lymphoblasts can accumulate in various extramedullary sites, especially […]

General Consideration of Lymphoma

What is Lymphoma? The lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that originate in a single lymphocyte that has undergone transforming mutations that confer on it a growth and survival advantage in comparison to its normal cellular counterparts. The neoplasm usually originates in a lymph node, or lymphatic tissue in […]