Yearly Archives: 2013


What is cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis means severe scarring of the liver.When normal liver tissue is damaged, it changes into scar tissue or fibrosis. This scar tissue can reduce blood flow through the liver, making it difficult for the liver to carry out functions that are essential for life and health. Many people believe that cirrhosis indicates a history of […]

What is cirrhosis

What is the liver and why is it so important ?

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body. It is located on the right side of the abdomen (to the right of the stomach), behind the lower ribs and below the lungs. The liver is divided into two sections called lobes. In a healthy adult the liver is about the size […]


Liver transplant cost – USA, India, Korea, Singapore, Europe, China, Canada

How much does liver transplant cost ? The cost of transplantation and follow-up varies across the United States. You must consider many potential costs—some directly related to your medical care and others that are unrelated to the surgery. Direct medical care costs include pretransplant evaluation and testing; surgery and the […]


Patient-Help.com selected as one of the 15 finalist – Anthah Prerana

    Patient-Help.com selected as one of the 15 finalist –  The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE) Bangalore has launched a platform for entrepreneurs to pitch their ideas to investors. AnthahPrerana is an initiative that will recognise entrepreneurs for their vision, innovation, the articulation and the path to realising their vision and innovation. It […]


What is Bone Marrow Transplant?

The bone marrow—the sponge-like tissue found in the center of certain bones—contains stem cells that are the precursors of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. These blood cells are vital for normal body functions, such as oxygen transport, defense against infection and disease, and clotting. Blood cells have […]


Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein

Abnormalities of Cytoskeletal Linking Proteins – Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Definition and History The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which affects 4 of every 1 million males worldwide, is an X chromosome-linked inherited disorder characterized by small platelets, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, and eczema, although only a minority of patients have all of the classic manifestations.722–724 […]


Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Necrotizing Enterocolitis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency occurring in newborn. An acute inflammatory disease with a multifactorial and controversial etiology, the condition is characterized by variable damage to the intestinal tract ranging from mucosal injury to full-thickness necrosis and perforation. Necrotizing enterocolitis represents a […]


Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation (HSCT) in Wilms Tumor.

What is Wilms Tumor ? Wilms tumor, the most common primary malignant renal tumor of childhood, is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation, and current cure rates exceed 85%.[11] Ten to 15% of patients with favorable histology and 50% of patients with anaplastic tumors experience tumor progression or relapse.[11] Similar […]


Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation HSCT in Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

What is Rhabdomyosarcoma ? Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood, shows skeletal muscle differentiation. The most common primary sites are the head and neck (e.g., parameningeal, orbital, pharyngeal), genitourinary tract, and extremities.[8] Most children with RMS present with localized disease, and with conventional multimodal therapy, the […]


Blood Diseases

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation treatment for solid tumors in children.


Non-myeloablative or mini-transplants (allogeneic)

Some people have health conditions that would make it more risky to wipe out all of their bone marrow before a transplant. For those people, doctors can use a type of allogeneic transplant that’s sometimes called a mini-transplant . Compared with a standard allogeneic transplant, this one uses less chemo […]


Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Summary of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)   Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Prior to the availability of eculizumab, the primary indications for transplantation were marrow failure, recurrent, life-threatening thrombosis, […]


Symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Summary of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)       Clinical Features paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) The primary clinical manifestations of PNH are hemolysis, thrombosis, and marrow failure.27 Constitutional symptoms […]


paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Summary of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)   Summary of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) In contrast to all other intrinsic abnormalities of the erythrocyte, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an […]


Clinical Disorders of Neutrophil Function

Classification Neutrophil dysfunction may arise from ( 1) the absence of antibodies or complement components required to opsonize microorganisms, an interaction that provides a chemotactic signal; (2) the abnormalities of cytoplasmic and granule movement that alter the chemotactic response or that result in abnormalities of the plasma membrane affecting the […]


Hemophagocytic Lymphohistocytosis

Definition and History Farquhar and Claireux first described this disease in siblings in 1952.143 Although many case reports using several eponyms ensued, Henter and Elinder provided a logical organization of the diverse clinical presentations.144 HLH is an aggressive and potentially fatal syndrome that results from inappropriate prolonged activation of lymphocytes […]


Glanzmann thrombasthenia- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Definition and History Symptoms of Glanzmann thrombasthenia Tests for Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Treatment of Glanzmann thrombasthenia Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been reported in several patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. The first was a 5-year-old male who had several severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages.195 His bleeding diathesis was cured and he was alive […]


Glanzmann Thrombasthenia – IIb3 (Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa; CD41/CD61)

Definition and History Symptoms of Glanzmann thrombasthenia Tests for Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Treatment of Glanzmann thrombasthenia Definition and History Glanzmann thrombasthenia is an inherited hemorrhagic disorder characterized by a severe reduction in, or absence of, platelet aggregation in response to multiple physiologic agonists because of qualitative or quantitative abnormalities of platelet […]


Symptoms of Glanzmann thrombasthenia

Definition and History Symptoms of Glanzmann thrombasthenia Tests for Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Treatment of Glanzmann thrombasthenia Clinical Features The clinical manifestations of a total of 232 patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia have been the subject of two reviews, and Table 121–2 summarizes data from 177 of these patients.10,21 Menorrhagia occurs in nearly […]


Tests for Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

Laboratory Features Table 121–3 provides characteristic laboratory data in patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Patients have normal platelet counts and morphology, prolonged bleeding times, decreased or absent clot retraction, and abnormal platelet aggregation responses to physiologic stimuli. Platelets of patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia have a normal (or near-normal) initial slope of […]