They induce mechanical obstruction of the biliary tree. Cholangitis, empyema of the gall bladder and multiple liver abscesses may occur as a result of secondary infection.
Stool examination commonly demonstrates the presence of worms. Ultrasound is highly accurate in delineating the worms in the biliary tree.
Non-operative management is successful. Mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate are used over 3 days. ERCP may be required for patients with cholangitis and biliary stones