General Surgery

Info on surgical disorders


Benign Breast Conditions

I. Fibrocystic Breast Change (FBC) Fibrocystic Breast Change (FBC) encompasses several of the following pathologic features: stromal fibrosis, macro- and microcysts, apocrine metaplasia, hyperplasia, and adenosis (which may be sclerosing, blunt-duct, or florid). FBC is common and may present as breast pain, a breast mass, nipple discharge, or abnormalities on […]


Noninvasive (in situ) breast cancer:

Noninvasive (in situ) breast cancer: DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) or LCIS (lobular carcinoma in situ) are lesions with malignant cells that have not penetrated the basement membrane of the mammary ducts or lobules, respectively. A. DCIS DCIS, or intraductal carcinoma, is treated as a malignancy because DCIS has the […]


Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue

The skin is the largest and among the most complex organs of the body. Although the skin functions simply as a protective barrier to interface with our environment, its structure and physiology are complex. The skin protects against most noxious agents, such as chemicals (by the impermeability of the epidermis), […]


Fibrocystic Breast Change (FBC)

Fibrocystic Breast Change (FBC) encompasses several of the following pathologic features: stromal fibrosis, macro- and microcysts, apocrine metaplasia, hyperplasia, and adenosis (which may be sclerosing, blunt-duct, or florid). FBC is common and may present as breast pain, a breast mass, nipple discharge, or abnormalities on mammography. The patient presenting with […]


Tumor Biomarkers and Prognostic Factors for Breast Cancer

Tumor Biomarkers and Prognostic Factors should be evaluated on all tumor specimens. Tumor size and grade are the most reliable pathologic predictors of outcome for patients without axillary nodal involvement. The Nottingham score combines histologic grade based on glandular differentiation, mitotic count, and nuclear grade. A higher grade is a […]


Screening for breast cancer

A. Screening for breast cancer. Screening mammogram Screening for breast cancer. Screening mammogram lowers mortality from breast cancer. It is performed in the asymptomatic patient and consists of two standard views, mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal (CC). The current recommendation from the National Cancer Institute and American College of Surgeons […]


Breast Cancer Surgery

Surgery is usually the first line of attack against breast cancer. This section explains the different types of breast cancer surgery. Decisions about surgery depend on many factors. You and your doctor will determine the kind of surgery that’s most appropriate for you based on the stage of the cancer, […]