Otolaryngology (E.N.T.)

Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery

I. Introduction Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (OHNS) is one of a few anatomically defined medical specialties. In addition, there are a significant number of structures concentrated within the head and neck. These factors make OHNS a challenging and exciting field, full of diverse systems and diseases. This chapter provides a […]

Nose and Sinus Disorders

A. Anatomy and physiology The nose functions primarily in respiration and olfaction. The external nose comprises the nasal bones superiorly and nasal cartilage anteriorly. The nasal septum comprises cartilage anteriorly and bone posteriorly. The inferior, middle, superior, and supreme turbinates are mucosa-lined bony prominences that project from the lateral nasal […]


A. Anatomy and physiology The larynx is divided into the supraglottis (which includes the epiglottis, arytenoid cartilages, false vocal folds, and ventricle), the glottis (true vocal folds), and subglottis (from the true vocal folds to the cricoid cartilage). The thyroid and cricoid cartilages and the hyoid bone provide the rigid […]

Oral Cavity and Pharynx

A. Anatomy and physiology   1.The oral cavity plays a crucial role in articulation and deglutition. The oral cavity includes the lips, oral mucosa, tongue, base of the tongue,   floor of the mouth, alveolar ridges, and hard and soft palates. The pharynx is divided into the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. […]

Neoplasms of the Head and Neck

A. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the aerodigestive tract is the most common neoplasm of the head and neck. SCC is strongly associated with tobacco and alcohol use. Despite advances in tumor resection, reconstruction techniques (which allow for larger surgical margins), and adjuvant treatments, the […]

Salivary Glands

A. Anatomy and physiology The major salivary glands include the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Hundreds of minor salivary glands exist in the palate, oral mucosa, and tongue. Salivary glands supply 1 to 1.5 L of saliva per day. Saliva provides lubrication during mastication, inhibits bacterial growth, helps to maintain […]