Liver Surgery


Hepatic Cysts

Hepatic Cysts can be divided into nonparasitic cysts and echinococcal cysts. A. Nonparasitic cysts Nonparasitic cysts generally are benign. They can be solitary or multiple and often are identified incidentally on imaging for other symptoms. Asymptomatic cysts require no treatment regardless of size. Large cysts may be symptomatic because of […]


Amebic Liver abscess

Amebic abscess should be considered in every case of solitary hepatic abscess. Amebiasis is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite exists in two forms: an infective cyst stage and a trophozoite stage, which is the form that causes invasive disease. Amebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal […]


Pyogenic liver abscesses

Pyogenic abscesses in the liver occur secondary to other sources of bacterial sepsis. Up to 60% of cases arise from direct spread of bacteria from biliary infections such as empyema of the gallbladder or cholangitis. Ruptured appendicitis or diverticulitis are other potential sources for bacterial seeding to the liver. Pathogenesis. […]


Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma

The annual incidence¬†of¬†Hepatocellular carcinoma¬†in the United States is approximately 2.4/100,000. The incidence is rising rapidly due in large part to the hepatitis C epidemic. There is a 2 to 3:1 male-to-female predominance. The incidence in African American men is almost twice that in white men. HCC is diagnosed mainly in […]


Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second-most-common benign hepatic tumor, constituting about 8% of cases. The pathogenesis of FNH is a matter of debate. In the past, it was thought to be either a hamartoma or a neoplasm. Currently, it is thought to represent a nonneoplastic, hyperplastic response to a […]


Hemangioma of Liver

Hemangioma is the most common benign liver tumor, with the prevalence (estimated from autopsy series) ranging from 3% to 20%. The majority are diagnosed in middle-aged women, and there is a female-to-male ratio of 5 to 6:1. The pathogenesis of hemangiomas is poorly understood. They are thought to represent hamartomatous […]