Gynecologic Oncology

Cancer diseases of the female reproductive system.

Cervical Cancer

Although detection of preinvasive disease has increased, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has dramatically decreased in the United States due to widespread screening by cervical cytology (Papanicolaou smears). However, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women in developing countries (National Cervical Cancer Coalition Web […]

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all the gynecologic malignancies. There will be approximately 22,430 new cases diagnosed in 2007. More than two thirds of patients in whom epithelial ovarian cancer is diagnosed eventually die from this disease (15,280/year in the United States) (Cancer J Clin 2007;57:43). Besides tumors arising […]

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Approximately 39,080 new cases will be diagnosed in 2007. Most (approximately 90%) of these tumors are adenocarcinomas arising from the lining of the uterus. Risk factors for endometrial cancer include white race, obesity, early menarche and late menopause, […]

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the blastocyst implants outside the uterine cavity; 97% of cases occur in a fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy). Presentation and clinical features of Ectopic pregnancy  . Although more than 90% of patients with tubal pregnancies have abdominal or pelvic pain, some may be asymptomatic. Early (unruptured) ectopic pregnancies […]

Causes of Vaginal Bleeding

 Causes of Vaginal Bleeding Differential diagnosis Laboratory data Signs and symptoms Treatment Menses CBC count, urine hCG Cyclic bleeding every 21–35 d Iron therapy if indicated Dysfunctional uterine bleeding CBC count, urine hCG, endometrial biopsy if >35 yr, duration >6 mo Noncyclic bleeding; may have associated dysmenorrhea, fatigue, or dizziness […]

Bleeding During Pregnency

Approximately 30% to 40% of all pregnancies are associated with some vaginal bleeding, and approximately half of these are spontaneously aborted. Terminology Threatened abortion: any vaginal bleeding during the first half of pregnancy, cervix closed. Missed abortion: fetal death with retention of products of conception (POC), cervix closed. Inevitable abortion: […]

Vaginal hysterectomy

NTRODUCTION Vaginal hysterectomy is a procedure in which the uterus is surgically removed through the vagina. One or both ovaries and fallopian tubes may be removed during the procedure as well;