Diseases of the digestive tract, including the stomach, bowel, liver and pancreas.

Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension Clinical features The major clinical differentiation in patients with portal hypertension is the presence of underlying chronic hepatocellular liver disease and the detection of complications.

cystic tumours


Cystic tumours Cystic tumours are quite rare lesions of the pancreas, representing 1% of malignant neoplasms of the pancreas. Histologically, they range from benign tumours of adenomatous appearance to cystadenocarcinomas.

DISEASE OF PANCREAS-Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a fibrotic disease of the pancreas that is characterised by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms and signs of malabsorption. In some patients, involvement of the islet cells also results in diabetes.

Chronic pancreatitis

Diseases of the pancreas -Acute pancreatitis

Diseases of the pancreas-  Acute pancreatitis    Clinical presentation Acute pancreatitis is characterized by an acute episode of epigastric to central abdominal pain, usually of rapid onset. The pain often radiates into the middle of the back. In some instances the patient may complain of vomiting; however, this is not a […]


Biliary Ascariasis   Clinical features They induce mechanical obstruction of the biliary tree. Cholangitis, empyema of the gall bladder and multiple liver abscesses may occur as a result of secondary infection.


Clonorchis sinensis   Clinical features The classic symptoms associated with clonorchis infestation are recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. There are recurrent attacks of right upper quadrant pain, jaundice and pyrexia. Examination may reveal tender hepatomegaly and splenomegaly if portal hypertension exists. 

LIVER INFECTION-Fasciola hepatica

Liver fluke disease Infestations of clinical importance include those by Fasciola hepatica, Clonorchis sinensis and Ascaris lumbricoides. These parasites are trematodes and undergo both sexual (definitive host) and asexual (intermediatehost) reproduction.

LIVER INFECTION-Alveolar Echinococcus

Alveolar echinococcus  Clinical features Early symptoms are usually non-specific and vague. The most common initial presentation is mild right upper quadrant pain.

LIVER INFECTION-Echinococcus granulosus

Hydatid disease There are two forms of hydatid disease, the most common being Echinococcus granulosus, which causes cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcus alveolaris is a much rarer form and is characterized by an infiltrative pattern of liver involvement.

LIVER INFECTION-Amoebic liver abscesses

  Parasitic infections Amoebic liver abscesses   Clinical features The onset of the disease may be sudden or gradual. Right upper quadrant pain associated with general malaise and weight loss is the most common symptoms on presentation.

Liver infections

Liver infections Bacterial infections – Phylogenic abscess Clinical presentation and diagnosis The most common presenting symptoms include pyrexia and rigours associated with right upper quadrant pain, general malaise and anorexia. Examination may reveal tender hepatomegaly. A pleural effusion may be present. Occasionally, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse may be the presenting symptoms.

Liver fluke disease

Infestations of clinical importance include those by Fasciola hepatica, Clonorchis sinensis and Ascaris lumbricoides.These parasites are trematodes and undergo both sexual (definitive host) and asexual (intermediate host) reproduction.


Gastric GIST Gastrointestinal stromal tumours were until the last decade described as leiomyomas or leiomyosarcomas and it is only with advances in molecular biology that this particular tumour has been recognized as a discrete entity.


INTRODUCTION Peptic ulcer is a common condition. Ten per cent of the population suffers from it at some time or another. The incidence and severity of peptic ulcer disease are decreasing in the Western world but they are increasing in developing countries. Because of the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory […]