Postgastrectomy Syndromes are caused by changes in gastric emptying as a consequence of gastric operations. They may occur in up to 20% of patients who undergo gastric surgery, depending on the extent of resection, disruption of the vagus nerves, status of the pylorus, type of reconstruction, and presence of mechanical or functional obstruction. Clearly defining the syndrome that is present in a given patient is critical to developing a rational treatment plan (World J Surg 2003;27:725). Most are treated nonoperatively and resolve with time.
Gastric Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumors accounting for less than 1% of all gastric neoplasms. Carcinoid tumors arise from enterochromaffin-like cells and can be secondary to hypergastrinemia associated with pernicious anemia or chronic atrophic gastritis. Tumors tend to be small, multiple, and asymptomatic, although larger solitary tumors may cause ulceration […]
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTS) comprise only 3% of all gastric malignancies and arise from mesenchymal components of the gastric wall. The median age at diagnosis is 60 years, with a slight male predominance. GISTs frequently display prominent extraluminal growth and can attain large sizes before becoming symptomatic. Presentation can be […]
Benign Gastric Tumors account for fewer than 2% of all gastric tumors. They are usually located in the antrum or corpus. Presentation can be similar to that of peptic ulcer or adenocarcinoma, and diagnosis is made by EGD or contrast radiography. A. Gastric polyps Gastric polyps are classified by histologic […]
Primary Gastric Lymphoma (PGL) accounts for fewer than 5% of gastric neoplasms. However, PGL comprises two thirds of all primary GI lymphomas because the stomach is the most commonly involved organ in extranodal lymphoma. PGLs are usually B-cell, non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Most PGLs occur in the distal stomach. Patients typically present […]
The etiology of gastric cancer is complex and multifactorial, involving a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious risk factors. Risk factors for gastric cancer include male gender, family history, polyposis syndromes, diets high in nitrates, salts, or pickled foods, adenomatous gastric polyps, previous gastric resection, Ménétrier disease, smoking, H. pylori infection, and chronic gastritis. Aspirin, fresh fruits and vegetables, selenium, and vitamin C may be protective against the development of gastric cancer.
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) represents a spectrum of disease characterized by ulceration of the stomach or proximal duodenum due to an imbalance between acid secretion and mucosal defense mechanisms.
The principal role of the stomach is to store and prepare ingested food for digestion and absorption through a variety of motor and secretory functions. The stomach can be divided into five regions based on external landmarks: the cardia, the region just distal to the gastroesophageal (GE) junction; the fundus, […]
Gastric Adenocarcinoma is the fourth-most common cancer worldwide and the tenth-most common malignancy in the United States. Its incidence has decreased dramatically over the last 60 years, perhaps secondary to improvements in refrigeration and diet. In addition, the anatomic pattern of gastric cancer is changing, with proximal or cardia cancers comprising a greater proportion of gastric cancers. Approximately one third of gastric cancers are metastatic at presentation. The overall 5-year survival rate is 15%.