Breast Diseases

Information on Breast diseases

Phyllodes Tumor

Phyllodes Tumor account for 1% of breast neoplasms. They present as a large, smooth, lobulated mass and may be difficult to distinguish from fibroadenoma on physical exam. They can occur in women of any age, but most frequently between ages 35 and 55 years. Skin ulcerations may occur secondary to […]

Breast Anatomy

I. The Breast Breast tissue is located between the subcutaneous fat and the fascia of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles. Posterior to the breast and anterior to the pectoralis fascia is the retromammary space, which contains small lymphatics and vessels. Breast tissue can extend to the clavicle, into […]

Physical Examination of breast

A. Inspect the breasts Inspect the breasts with the patient both in the upright and supine positions. With the patient in the upright position, examine with the patient’s arms relaxed and then raised, looking for shape asymmetry, deformity, and skin changes (erythema, edema, dimpling). With the patient in the supine […]


Galactorrhea is milky discharge unrelated to breast-feeding. Physiologic galactorrhea is the continued production of milk after lactation has ceased and menses resumed and is often caused by continued mechanical stimulation of the nipples. Drug-related galactorrhea is caused by medications that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by depleting dopamine (tricyclic antidepressants, reserpine, […]

Pathologic nipple discharge

┬áPathologic nipple discharge is either (1) bloody or (2) spontaneous, unilateral, and originates from a single duct. Normal physiologic discharge is usually nonbloody, from multiple ducts, can be a variety of colors (clear to yellow to green), and requires breast manipulation to produce. Pathologic discharge is serous, serosanguineous, bloody, or […]