Allergy & Immunology

Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery

I. Introduction Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (OHNS) is one of a few anatomically defined medical specialties. In addition, there are a significant number of structures concentrated within the head and neck. These factors make OHNS a challenging and exciting field, full of diverse systems and diseases. This chapter provides a […]

Thyroid surgery in Bangalore

Thyroid surgery in Bangalore & Cost

Dr Adarsh M Patil mbbs ms  Is one of the leading surgeons in Bangalore .15 years of experience in eminent hospitals like Manipal Hospital, Apollo Hospitals and Narayana Hrudalaya in Bangalore. He has experience of treating numerous thyroid patients in Bangalore . He believes in that Patient safety comes first and […]

How does surgery promote weight loss? Bariatric surgery produces weight loss by restricting food intake and, in some cases, interfering with nutrition through malabsorption.  Patients who undergo bariatric surgery must also commit to a lifetime  of healthy eating and regular physical activity. These healthy habits help ensure that the weight […]

Acute Cholecystitis Pathogenesis Acute cholecystitis is secondary to gallstones in 90 to 95% of cases. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a condition that typically occurs in patients with other acute systemic diseases (see Acalculous Cholecystitis section below). In <1% of acute cholecystitis, the cause is a tumor obstructing the cystic duct. […]

Anal Fissure

Anal Fissure is a split in the anoderm. Ninety percent of anal fissures occur posteriorly and 10% occur anteriorly; location elsewhere should prompt exam under anesthesia and biopsy. Symptoms include tearing pain with defecation and severe anal spasm that lasts for hours afterward and blood (usually on the toilet paper). […]

Internal Hernias A. Incidence Of patients who present with acute intestinal obstruction, fewer than 5% have an internal hernia. When internal hernias are complicated by intestinal volvulus, there is an 80% incidence of strangulation or gangrene. B. Etiology Internal hernias occur within the abdominal cavity owing to congenital or acquired […]

 Disorders of Colonic Physiolog A.constipation… The term constipation is often used by patients to describe a number of different defecatory symptoms (infrequent bowel movements, difficult or painful    movements, etc.). Constipation is generally defined clinically as one or fewer spontaneous bowel movements or stools per week. Etiologies include medications (narcotics, anticholinergics, […]

Internal intussusception (internal rectal prolapse) Internal intussusception (internal rectal prolapse) causes outlet obstruction with mucus discharge, hematochezia, tenesmus, and constipation. Proctoscopy demonstrates a solitary rectal ulcer at the lead point of the internal prolapse. Treatment consists of increased bulk, stool softeners, and glycerin suppositories. Indications for surgery are chronic bleeding, […]

VIII. Neoplasms of the Head and Neck An in-depth review of the diverse neoplasms affecting the head and neck is beyond the scope of this chapter. Squamous cell carcinoma and other selected neoplasms are addressed. A. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the aerodigestive tract is […]

Purpose In some cases, for some unknown reason, while in utero, the abdominal wall muscles do not form correctly. And, when the abdominal wall is incompletely formed at birth, the internal organs of the infant can either protrude into the umbilical cord (omphalocele) or to the side of the navel […]

Intestinal atresia or stenosis

B. Intestinal atresia or stenosis This results from intrauterine vascular insult. Location. Distal ileum > proximal jejunum > duodenum > colon. Diagnosis Antenatal ultrasound Polyhydramnios. Dilated intestinal loops. Neonatal history and physical Symptoms appear shortly after birth for atresia but may take weeks to months for stenosis. Bilious vomiting. Abdominal […]

Body Contouring

Body contouring is a general term that refers to procedures that al-ter the shape of large areas of the body, that is, mainly the trunk and extremities. Naturally, many cosmetic procedures have this goal, but the common use of the term “body contouring” denotes surgeries such as liposuction, excision of […]


Two-dimensional (2-D) face-lifting techniques provide the basic construct upon which 3-D  rejuvenation procedures are performed. The 2-D techniques allow rejuvenation through oblique and lateral lifting or through vertical and superolateral lifting. The addition of enhancement in an anterior-posterior (A-P) direction defines the 3-D facial rejuvenation tech- nique. There are four […]

Meckel Diverticulum Meckel Diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. It occurs from failure of the vitelline or omphalomesenteric duct to obliterate by the sixth week of fetal development. It is a true diverticulum that contains all layers of the bowel wall and is located on […]


PATIENT INFORMATION ON RETINAL AND VITREOUS SURGERY This information is intended as a general guide only. Please ask the nurse or doctor if you have any questions relating to this information. DISEASE PROCESS / INTRODUCTION The retina lines the inside of the eye and is a thin tissue composed of […]


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