Bone marrow transplants

Stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is broadly considered an incurable cancer of plasma cell which one of the  component of blood. However, the rapid pace of research in stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma is changing the landscape of its treatment and emerged as only  potential curative option. Study of both autologous stem […]

Bone marrow transplant for thalassemia

Dose allogeneic bone marrow transplant  for thalassemia ( stem cell transplantation) cure thalassemia ?   The first curative allogeneic bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplantation for thalassemia  was performed in 1982. Since then, thousands of successful transplantation have been reported. Success  rates for cure have  reported as high as […]

Bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia

What is the role of bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant for aplastic anemia and what are the success rates? Aplastic anemia is a potentially serious bone marrow failure disorder that is characterized by low  cell count  in blood and bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or bone marrow transplant […]

Bone Marrow Transplant for Leukemia.

Bone marrow transplant for Leukemia during first remission remains controversial. In adult Leukemia, long-term disease-free survival rates range from 35 to 40 percent with chemotherapy alone and from 45 to 75 percent with allogeneic transplantation. However, interpretation of these results is difficult because of the lack of true randomization. Even […]

Cost of bone marrow transplant, India, Singapore, USA

Bone marrow transplant also called as stem cell transplant is  the latest development in medical science . Though it promises cure  to some  of the serious medical conditions like Leukaemia ,Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma, Sickle cell anaemia, Aplastic anemia,Thalassemia, Congenital neutropenia, Severe immunodeficiency syndromes, It remains as one of the most expensive […]

What is Bone Marrow Transplant?

The bone marrow—the sponge-like tissue found in the center of certain bones—contains stem cells that are the precursors of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. These blood cells are vital for normal body functions, such as oxygen transport, defense against infection and disease, and clotting. Blood cells have […]

Non-myeloablative or mini-transplants (allogeneic)

Some people have health conditions that would make it more risky to wipe out all of their bone marrow before a transplant. For those people, doctors can use a type of allogeneic transplant that’s sometimes called a mini-transplant . Compared with a standard allogeneic transplant, this one uses less chemo […]

Bone Marrow Transplant Success Rate

The Expected outcome after Bone Marrow Transplant In a successful bone marrow transplant, the donor’s marrow migrates to the cavities in the recipient’s bones and produces normal numbers of healthy blood cells. Bone marrow transplants can extend a person’s life, improve quality of life, and may aid in curing the […]

Bone Marrow Transplant History

Definition of Bone Marrow Transplant In bone marrow transplantation, Healthy marrow is infused into people who have had high dose chemotherapy for one of the many forms of leukemias, immunodeficiencies, lymphomas, anemias, metabolic disorders, and sometimes solid tumors. Why we do Bone Marrow Transplant A bone marrow transplant is used to rebuild the body’s […]

Effect of Pregnancy on Hematology

Effect of pregnancy on maternal physiology Normal pregnancy involves many changes in maternal physiology including alterations in hematologic parameters. These changes include expansion in maternal blood and plasma volume. The increase in plasma volume is relatively larger than the increase in red cell mass resulting in a decrease in hemoglobin […]

Production of Fetal Hematopoietic Cells

Sites of Fetal Hematopoietic Cells Production During embryogenesis, hematopoiesis occurs in spatially and temporally distinct sites, including the extraembryonic yolk sac, the fetal liver, the thymus, and the preterm marrow. The origin of hematopoietic cells is closely tied to gastrulation, the formation of mesoderm cells, and to the emergence of […]

Neonatal blood

Neonatal blood During embryogenesis, production of Neonatal blood occurs in spatially and temporally distinct sites, including the extraembryonic yolk sac, the fetal liver, and the preterm marrow. The development of primitive erythroblasts in the yolk sac is critical for embryonic survival.  Primitive erythroblasts differentiate within the vascular network rather than in […]

Lymph nodes

Lymph nodes The Lymph nodes are secondary lymphoid tissues. They form part of a network that filters antigens from the interstitial tissue fluid and lymph during its passage from the periphery to the thoracic duct. Thus, the Lymph nodes are the primary sites of immune response to tissue antigens. Lymph nodes anatomy The lymph […]

What is spleen function

What is spleen function  What is spleen function? actually spleen has many functions not only one. Splenic function 1. Red cell clearance There are three important area that compose the spleen. red pulp, white pulp and marginal zone. the white pulp contains the lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that surround the […]

What you need to know about Spleen

What is the spleen? The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. Secondary lymphoid tissues provide an environment in which the cells of the immune system can interact with antigen and with one another to develop an immune response to antigen. The spleen is a major site of immune response to […]

Function of Thymus

Thymic immune Function The thymus is the site of T-cell development. Function of Thymus is underscored by patients with DiGeorge syndrome, or chromosome 22q11. deletion syndrome, which lacks the genes, required for thymic development. These patients do not develop T cells and hence have profound immune deficiency. Mechanism of cells production in thymus There are […]


Definition of Thymus The Thymus is the site for development of thymic derived lymphocytes, or T cells. What happen inside the Thymus  Developing T cells, called thymocytes, differentiate from lymphoid stem cells derived from the marrow into functional, mature T cells. It is here that T cells acquire their repertoire of specific antigen receptors […]

Types of Blood Cells in Bone Marrow

Different types of blood cells in bone marrow There are different types of blood cells in the bone marrow: Erythrocytes The erythrocyte is a complex cell. The membrane is composed of lipids and proteins, and the interior of the cell contains metabolic machinery designed to sustain the cell through its […]

Bone Marrow is the Site of Blood Formation

Function of Bone Marrow is: The bone marrow is one of the largest organs in the human body, and it is the principal site for blood cell formation. In the normal adult, daily marrow production amounts to approximately 2.5 billion red cells, 2.5 billion platelets, and 1 billion granulocytes per […]

What is red cell?

What is red cell parameter  It’s very important to know what is red cell.  Most automated blood cell counters measure the number of red cells, the mean red cell volume (MCV), and hemoglobin concentration. The other red cell parameters, including the hematocrit, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are […]

What is bone marrow

 What is bone marrow  The bone marrow, located in the medullary cavity of bone, What is bone marrow ? it is the sole site of effective hematopoiesis in humans. The marrow produces approximately six billion cells per kilogram of  body weight per day. What is bone marrow types Hematopoietically active (red) marrow […]

Acute myelogenous leukemia

Definition of Acute myelogenous leukemia Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the result of a sequence of somatic mutations in a  multipotential primitive hematopoietic cell or, in some cases, a more differentiated  progenitor cell.  Acute myelogenous leukemia  is characterized by (1) accumulation of abnormal (leukemic) blast cells, principally in the  marrow, and (2) […]

Abnormal Bone Marrow Examination

Abnormal Bone Marrow Examination Results Abnormal Bone marrow biopsy is characterized by disruption of the marrow architecture with groups of cytologically abnormal cells. Assessment of the tissue of origin is primarily based on morphology, clinical history, and immunocytochemical staining. The tendency of carcinoma cells to form tightly adherent clusters frequently […]

Bone Marrow exam

Importance of microscopic  marrow exam Marrow exam  is a mainstay of hematologic diagnosis. Even  with the advent of specialized biochemical and molecular assays that capitalize on advances in our understanding of the cell biology of hematopoiesis, the primary diagnosis of hematologic malignancies and many nonneoplastic hematologic disorders relies upon examination of […]