Monthly Archives: January 2014

Noninvasive (in situ) breast cancer:

Noninvasive (in situ) breast cancer: DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) or LCIS (lobular carcinoma in situ) are lesions with malignant cells that have not penetrated the basement membrane of the mammary ducts or lobules, respectively. A. DCIS DCIS, or intraductal carcinoma, is treated as a malignancy because DCIS has the […]

Benign Breast Conditions

I. Fibrocystic Breast Change (FBC) Fibrocystic Breast Change (FBC) encompasses several of the following pathologic features: stromal fibrosis, macro- and microcysts, apocrine metaplasia, hyperplasia, and adenosis (which may be sclerosing, blunt-duct, or florid). FBC is common and may present as breast pain, a breast mass, nipple discharge, or abnormalities on […]

Oral Cavity and Pharynx

A. Anatomy and physiology   1.The oral cavity plays a crucial role in articulation and deglutition. The oral cavity includes the lips, oral mucosa, tongue, base of the tongue,   floor of the mouth, alveolar ridges, and hard and soft palates. The pharynx is divided into the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. […]


A. Anatomy and physiology The larynx is divided into the supraglottis (which includes the epiglottis, arytenoid cartilages, false vocal folds, and ventricle), the glottis (true vocal folds), and subglottis (from the true vocal folds to the cricoid cartilage). The thyroid and cricoid cartilages and the hyoid bone provide the rigid […]

Nose and Sinus Disorders

A. Anatomy and physiology The nose functions primarily in respiration and olfaction. The external nose comprises the nasal bones superiorly and nasal cartilage anteriorly. The nasal septum comprises cartilage anteriorly and bone posteriorly. The inferior, middle, superior, and supreme turbinates are mucosa-lined bony prominences that project from the lateral nasal […]

Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery

I. Introduction Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (OHNS) is one of a few anatomically defined medical specialties. In addition, there are a significant number of structures concentrated within the head and neck. These factors make OHNS a challenging and exciting field, full of diverse systems and diseases. This chapter provides a […]

Thyroid surgery in Bangalore

Thyroid surgery in Bangalore & Cost

Dr Adarsh M Patil mbbs ms  Is one of the leading surgeons in Bangalore .15 years of experience in eminent hospitals like Manipal Hospital, Apollo Hospitals and Narayana Hrudalaya in Bangalore. He has experience of treating numerous thyroid patients in Bangalore . He believes in that Patient safety comes first and […]

How does surgery promote weight loss? Bariatric surgery produces weight loss by restricting food intake and, in some cases, interfering with nutrition through malabsorption.  Patients who undergo bariatric surgery must also commit to a lifetime  of healthy eating and regular physical activity. These healthy habits help ensure that the weight […]

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue

The skin is the largest and among the most complex organs of the body. Although the skin functions simply as a protective barrier to interface with our environment, its structure and physiology are complex. The skin protects against most noxious agents, such as chemicals (by the impermeability of the epidermis), […]

Acute Cholecystitis Pathogenesis Acute cholecystitis is secondary to gallstones in 90 to 95% of cases. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a condition that typically occurs in patients with other acute systemic diseases (see Acalculous Cholecystitis section below). In <1% of acute cholecystitis, the cause is a tumor obstructing the cystic duct. […]

 Disorders of Colonic Physiolog A.constipation… The term constipation is often used by patients to describe a number of different defecatory symptoms (infrequent bowel movements, difficult or painful    movements, etc.). Constipation is generally defined clinically as one or fewer spontaneous bowel movements or stools per week. Etiologies include medications (narcotics, anticholinergics, […]

Internal Hernias

A. Incidence Internal Hernias Oasf patients who present with acute intestinal obstruction, fewer than 5% have an internal hernia. When internal hernias are complicated by intestinal volvulus, there is an 80% incidence of strangulation or gangrene. B. Etiology Internal hernias occur within the abdominal cavity owing to congenital or acquired […]

Internal Hernias A. Incidence Of patients who present with acute intestinal obstruction, fewer than 5% have an internal hernia. When internal hernias are complicated by intestinal volvulus, there is an 80% incidence of strangulation or gangrene. B. Etiology Internal hernias occur within the abdominal cavity owing to congenital or acquired […]

Anal Fissure

Anal Fissure is a split in the anoderm. Ninety percent of anal fissures occur posteriorly and 10% occur anteriorly; location elsewhere should prompt exam under anesthesia and biopsy. Symptoms include tearing pain with defecation and severe anal spasm that lasts for hours afterward and blood (usually on the toilet paper). […]

Internal intussusception (internal rectal prolapse) Internal intussusception (internal rectal prolapse) causes outlet obstruction with mucus discharge, hematochezia, tenesmus, and constipation. Proctoscopy demonstrates a solitary rectal ulcer at the lead point of the internal prolapse. Treatment consists of increased bulk, stool softeners, and glycerin suppositories. Indications for surgery are chronic bleeding, […]

Body Contouring

Body contouring is a general term that refers to procedures that al-ter the shape of large areas of the body, that is, mainly the trunk and extremities. Naturally, many cosmetic procedures have this goal, but the common use of the term “body contouring” denotes surgeries such as liposuction, excision of […]

Intestinal atresia or stenosis

B. Intestinal atresia or stenosis This results from intrauterine vascular insult. Location. Distal ileum > proximal jejunum > duodenum > colon. Diagnosis Antenatal ultrasound Polyhydramnios. Dilated intestinal loops. Neonatal history and physical Symptoms appear shortly after birth for atresia but may take weeks to months for stenosis. Bilious vomiting. Abdominal […]

Purpose In some cases, for some unknown reason, while in utero, the abdominal wall muscles do not form correctly. And, when the abdominal wall is incompletely formed at birth, the internal organs of the infant can either protrude into the umbilical cord (omphalocele) or to the side of the navel […]