Aortic Valve Replacement Overview

Aortic valve replacement Definition

It’s known that Aortic valve replacement is the insertion of a mechanical or tissue valve in place of the diseased biological aortic valve.

The purpose of Aortic valve replacement

Aortic valve replacement is necessary when the aortic valve has become diseased. The aortic valve can suffer from insufficiency (inability to perform adequately) or stenosis (narrowing). An insufficient valve is leaky and allows blood to flow backward from the aorta to the left ventricle during diastole, which occurs when the ventricles fill with blood. A stenotic valve prevents the forward-moving flow of blood from the left ventricle to the aorta, during systole, which is the time period when the heart is contracting.

Either situation can result in heart failure and an enlarged left ventricle. With aortic stenosis, the symptoms of angina pectoris, fainting, and congestive heart failure will develop with the severity of the narrowing.

There is an increased rate of sudden death of patients with aortic stenosis. Dyspnea (labored breathing), fatigue, and palpitations are late symptoms of aortic insufficiency. Angina pectoris is associated with the latest stages of aortic insufficiency.

The patients who are suitable for Aortic valve replacement

Congenital birth defects involving a bicuspid aortic valve can develop stenosis. These patients may become symptomatic in mid-teen years through age 65.

Patients with aortic stenosis who have angina, dyspnea, or fainting are candidates for aortic valve replacement. Asymptomatic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting should be treated with aortic valve replacement, but otherwise are not candidates for preventive aortic valve replacement.

Patients showing acute symptoms, including pulmonary edema, heart rhythm problems, or circulatory collapse, are candidates for aortic valve replacement. Chronic pathologies are recommended for surgery when patients appear symptomatic, demonstrating angina and dyspnea. Asymptomatic patients also must be monitored for heart dysfunction. Left ventricular dimensions greater than 2 in (50mm) at diastole or 3 in (70mm) at systole are indications for replacement when aortic insufficiency is diagnosed.